Using Combined Census Model For 2023 Census

Using a combined census model for the 2023 Census helps Stats NZ produce the highest quality data possible to show us how New Zealanders are living in Aotearoa New Zealand.

What is the combined model?

We combined data collected through census responses with alternative data sources. We only used alternative data sources when we didn’t have a census form response, and when it was appropriate to do so.

We used administrative (admin) data to add records to the 2023 Census file. We also used admin data, data from previous censuses, and statistical imputation, to fill gaps in census variables.

Admin data is data that is collected by government agencies or other organisations while conducting their normal business. Examples of admin data are birth, death, and taxation records. We only consider using admin data where we have not already captured the information through census form responses. For the 2023 Census, admin data was sourced through the Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI).

For the 2018 Census we introduced a combined census model to address data quality issues from low response in the census collection. The 2023 Census is different, in that we intentionally designed this census to use a combined census model.

We have been engaging proactively with our Treaty partners, stakeholders, and communities to maintain and develop their trust and confidence in the 2023 Census, including the safe use of admin data in a combined census model. More information is provided in:

Privacy impact assessment for the use of admin data in the 2023 Census

Applying confidentiality rules to 2023 Census data and summary of changes since 2018 and 2013 Censuses

Detailed methodology

The combined census model for the 2023 Census is informed by several methodologies. The following papers describe the combined model implemented for the 2023 Census:

Earlier papers

The following papers were released in 2022 and detail the planned approach for the combined model in the 2023 Census. These are largely superseded by the papers listed above.

Contact us

If you have any questions about the combined census model or the 2023 Census in general, you can contact us:

[email protected]
0508 525 525.

/Stats NZ Public Release. View in full here.